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Shabbat Bereishit

Chapters Genesis1-6:8

Human Nature

After the first chapter of Genesis describes the creation of the physical universe, the rest of the book goes on to deal with the often-ambivalent relationships with God and other human beings.

There are so many different ways of reading (and translating) the text that it is instructive to notice the different ways mainstream Christianity and mainstream Judaism looked at the first chapters of Genesis. Whereas Christianity focused on what it called Original Sin, Judaism emphasized human beings having choices. Even if they often made the wrong ones. One had to atone and interact with God directly putting matters right, rather than through an intermediary.

The first example of disobedience is Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. They were specifically commanded not to eat the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge good and bad and warned that there would be consequences if they did. The purely physical perspective was represented by the snake which prevailed. Adam and Eve disobeyed God. In doing so they realized the power of negative energy and the capacity to disobey. They were embarrassed. And they suffered the consequences.

The next example of a terrible decision was Cain’s murderous attack on Abel. The background was that both tried to reach out to God with a sacrifice. Cain’s sacrifice was rejected which offended both his spiritual identity and his status as the firstborn. He reacted negatively. To which God told him to try to do better next time and not to give in to his disappointment. God warned him that if he did, he would be dragged down into a state of negativity. Cain did not have the resilience to overcome his disappointment, perhaps he was a manic depressive and he reacted by killing Abel.

The philosopher Martin Buber defended Cain by saying that no one had told him about murder. There was no prior command in the Bible not to. He might not have known that striking another human being could result in death. He had never seen it. Perhaps Abel was just sleeping. Which might explain why he responded to God “I don’t know where he is, am I my brother’s keeper?” He did not know what he had done.

I do not agree. After all, he had seen Abel killing sheep for his sacrifice. Did he not connect? But to support Buber's interesting thesis one could argue that Adam and Eve were specifically warned. It would become a principal in Jewish law called Hatraah, warning, that you could not convict without testimony that the perpetrator had been warned of the crime and the punishment for it, by two witnesses. There is no record that Cain was warned, either of the crime or the punishment. One might argue that in Adam and Eve’s case they were warned, they knew the consequences, their decision was a rational one. You might argue that Cain did not. He reacted spontaneously out of uncontrollable passion. Motive and state of mind can be all-important. So that we have two very different examples of disobedience to learn the lessons from.

This distinction came to be recognized in another principle in the Talmud. The person who disobeys because he or she is overcome by an uncontrollable urge (who for example eats non-kosher food because he likes it) is not regarded as negatively, as the person who disobeys or rejects the law out of a cold, calculated decision to reject something regarded as ridiculous or pointless. Eating non-kosher food provocatively for example. We all make mistakes and suffer the consequences, but we do so for different motives. This is why the Talmud also says, “ Think of God in all your actions, even when you are transgressing.”

Shabbat Shalom

Rabbi Jeremy


Jeremy Rosen was born in Manchester, England, the eldest son of Rabbi Kopul Rosen and Bella Rosen. Rosen's thinking was strongly influenced by his father, who rejected fundamentalist and obscurantist approaches in favour of being open to the best the secular world has to offer while remaining committed to religious life. He was first educated at Carmel College, the school his father had founded based on this philosophical orientation. At his father's direction, Rosen also studied at Be'er Yaakov Yeshiva in Israel (1957–1958 and 1960). He then went on to Merkaz Harav Kook (1961), and Mir Yeshiva (1965–1968) in Jerusalem, where he received semicha from Rabbi Chaim Leib Shmuelevitz in addition to Rabbi Dovid Povarsky of Ponevezh and Rabbi Moshe Shmuel Shapiro of Yeshivat Be'er Ya'akov. In between Rosen attended Cambridge University (1962–1965), graduating with a degree in Moral Sciences.


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